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MAC RESHI

MAC RESHI

Bangladesh

MAC0003

80 / Metric Ton Get Latest Price

Bangladesh

80 per Metric Ton

500 Metric Ton

5 kgs in a master carton

3 month

500 Metric Ton per Month

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Product Description

Six strains of reishi mushroom (Gl1, Gl2, Gl3, Gl4, Gl5 and Gl6) were cultured on three different
amounts of substrate (500g, 750g and 1000g in wet basis) to evaluate their growth and yield
performance. Among the strains, remarkable variation was not found in mycelium growth and
time required to antler initiation and conk formation. Days required to complete mycelium
running and mushroom harvest were increased with the increases of amount of substrate.
Maximum length and diameter of stalk as well as thickness and diameter of pileus was recorded
in Gl4. The highest biological yield (36.00g/packet) was obtained from Gl4 when cultured on
750g substrate followed by the same strain on 1000g substrate (34.50g/packet). The lowest
biological yield (20.00g/packet) was recorded in Gl3 when cultured on 500 g substrate followed
by Gl5, Gl6, Gl1 and Gl2 on 500g substrate. The highest biological efficiency (13.00%) was found
in Gl4 when 500g substrate was used and the least biological efficiency was exhibited in Gl3
when cultured on 1000g substrate.
Key words: Strains of reishi mushroom, amount of substrate, growth and yield.
INTRODUCTION
Ganoderma lucidum is a species of Basidiomycetes which belongs to the family of
Polyporaceae or Ganodermaceae. Its fruiting body is called “Reishi” in Japanese and
“Lingzhi” in Chinese (Yang and Liau, 1998 and Wagner, 2003). It occurs in six different
colours, while, red coloured one is most widely used in commercial cultivation in North
America, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan (Nasreen et al., 2005). Many strains of
Ganoderma lucidum fix the function of blood, skin and muscle. The biggest
characteristics of the strains are their effectiveness as an immune modulator. The
production of reishi mushroom can be varied with many factors including inherent
genetic differences within strains. Some strains of reishi mushroom have a worldwide
distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions (Arora, 1986). Some
medicinally important reishi mushroom strains are available in Bangladesh but their
performances have not been studied.
Mushroom production varies greatly on fruiting conditions, substrate selection and
amount of substrates. Artificial cultivation technique of reishi mushroom has been
developed on solid substrates using sawdust and agricultural wastes (Peksen and
Yakupoglu, 2009 and Malarvizhi et al., 2003). The cultivation of medicinal mushrooms
largely increased due to the use of different sizes of polypropylene bags or containers
(Smith et al., 2002). But, for higher yield and better quality, specific information on theamount of sawdust for specific reishi mushroom strain is not available. Hence, it is
subjected for growers to identify the best strain that grows on suitable amount of
substrate. The aim of this investigation was to study the growth and yield performances of
six strains of reishi mushroom available in Bangladesh and to standardize the amount of
sawdust substrate for their cultivation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted at the National Mushroom Development and Extension
Centre, Sobhanbag, Savar, Dhaka during the months of April to August, 2009. Six strains
of reishi mushroom such as Gl1, Gl2, Gl3, Gl4, Gl5 and Gl6 and three different amounts of
substrate viz. T1=500g, T2=750g and T3=1000g in wet basis were used as treatment.
Spawn packet preparation: The substrate of spawn packets were prepared by using
sawdust and wheat bran at the ratio of 2:1 (dry basis). Water was added to make the
moisture content 60% and CaCO3 was added at the rate of 0.2% of the total mixture.
Different sizes of polypropylene bags were filled with prepared substrate followed by
above three amounts. After filling the bags, the mouths of the bags were plugged by
inserting water absorbing cotton with the help of plastic neck and autoclaved at 121 0C
and 1.0 kg/cm2 for 2 hours. After autoclaving and cooling, the bags were inoculated
separately with the mother culture of six strains of reishi mushroom. After inoculation,
the packets were incubated in the laboratory at about 25±2 0C temperatures. In incubation
period, whitish mycelia begin to grow on the substrate. The fully colonized packets were
used for cultivation.
Experimental condition: After completion of mycelium running, spawn packets were
opened by square sized (1×1 cm) cut on the single side middle abdomen of the packet and
transferred to the culture room at 25-320C temperature and 80-90% relative humidity.
Sufficient water was applied per day and proper aeration was maintained in culture house
to develop the fruiting body. Biological yield in g/packet was recorded by weighing the
whole fruiting bodies and biological efficiency was determined by the following formula:
Biological efficiency (%) =
Total dry substrate used (g)
Total biological yield (g)
× 100
Statistical analysis: The experiment was laid out following completely randomized
design (CRD) with 4 replications. Data on mycelium growth rate, days required to
complete mycelium running, antler initiation, conk formation and first harvest, number of
fruiting body, length of stem, diameter of stem, diameter of pileus, thickness of pileus,
biological yield and biological efficiency were recorded and analyzed following Gomez
and Gomez (1984) using MSTAT-c computer program. Means separation were computed
following Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) using the same computer program.Performance of six strains of reishi mushroom
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Mycelium growth rate: Significant variation in mycelium growth rate was observed in
six strains of Ganoderma lucidum (Table 1). The highest mycelium growth rate (0.39
cm/day) was recorded in Gl5 which was statistically similar to Gl6 (0.37 cm/day) and Gl4
(0.35 cm/day). The lowest mycelium growth rate (0.32 cm/day) was recorded in Gl1, Gl2
and Gl3.
Table 1. Mycelium growth rate of six strains of reishi mushroom on 500g of sawdust
substrate
Strains of reishi mushroom Mycelium growth rate
(cm/day)
Gl1 0.32 b
Gl2 0.32 b
Gl3 0.32 b
Gl4 0.35 ab
Gl5 0.39 a
Gl6 0.37 a
CV (%) 7.05
In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT.
Days to completion of mycelium running, antler initiation, conk formation and first
harvest: Days required to completion of mycelium running, antler initiation, conk
formation and first harvest of tested strains were significantly influenced by different
amounts of substrates (Table 2). The days required to completion of mycelium running
(DRCMR) in spawn medium ranged from 26.50 to 48.75. The lowest DRCMR (26.50)
was found in Gl5T1 followed by Gl6T1 and Gl4T1. The highest DRCMR (48.75) was
recorded in Gl2T3. The DRCMR was increased with the increases of amount of substrate.
The minimum days required from opening to antler initiation (DROAI) (3.75) was
observed in Gl4 when cultured on 500g substrate (Gl4T1), which was statistically similar to
all the treatments except Gl1T3, Gl2T2, Gl2T3, Gl3T3 and Gl5T3. The maximum DROAI
(5.75) was observed in Gl1T3, Gl2T2 and Gl2T3. The lowest Days required from opening to
conk formation (DROKF) (10.25) was recorded in Gl4 when cultured on 500g substrate
which was statistically similar to Gl1T1 and Gl2T1. The maximum DROKF (14.25) was
found in Gl5T3 which was statistically similar to Gl3T3, Gl1T3, Gl2T3, Gl5T2, Gl3T2 and Gl2T2.
In case of days required from opening to first harvest (DROFH), the minimum DROFH
(37.25) was recorded in Gl1 and Gl4 when cultured on 500g substrate which was
statistically identical to Gl2T1 and Gl3T1. The maximum DROFH (49.25) was recorded in
Gl2, Gl5 and Gl6 when cultured on 1000g substrate.Table 2. Interaction effect of strains of reishi mushroom and different amounts of substrate
on time required to complete mycelium running, antler initiation, conk formation
and first harvest
Treatments Days required to
complete
mycelium running
(DRCMR)
Days required
from opening to
antler initiation
(DROAI)
Days required from
opening to conk
formation
(DROKF)
Days required
from opening to
first harvest
(DROFH)
Gl1T1 31.25 d 4.00 bc 11.25 ef 37.25 h
Gl1T2 39.75 c 5.25 abc 12.00 cde 44.00 de
Gl1T3 47.25 ab 5.75 a 13.50 ab 47.25 bc
Gl2T1 31.75 d 4.75 abc 11.50 ef 38.00 gh
Gl2T2 40.25 c 5.75 a 13.00 a-d 43.75 de
Gl2T3 48.75 a 5.75 a 13.50 ab 49.25 a
Gl3T1 31.25 d 4.00 bc 12.25 b-e 39.00 fgh
Gl3T2 39.25 c 4.50 abc 13.00 a-d 44.75 de
Gl3T3 47.25 ab 5.50 ab 13.75 a 48.25 ab
Gl4T1 29.00 de 3.75 c 10.25 f 37.25 h
Gl4T2 39.50 c 4.75 abc 11.50 bcd 43.25 e
Gl4T3 46.75 ab 4.75 abc 12.25 b-e 47.00 bc
Gl5T1 26.50 e 4.00 bc 11.75 de 40.50 f
Gl5T2 38.75 c 4.75 abc 13.25 abc 45.50 cd
Gl5T3 45.50 b 5.50 ab 14.25 a 49.25 a
Gl6T1 28.75 de 4.25 abc 11.75 de 39.25 fg
Gl6T2 39.75 c 5.00 abc 12.00 cde 44.75 de
Gl6T3 48.00 ab 4.75 abc 12.25 b-e 49.25 a
CV (%) 6.42 18.99 13.16 4.97
In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT. (T1=
500g, T2 =750g and T3 =1000g)
Number of fruiting body: The number of fruiting bodies (NFB) ranged from 1.25 to
2.50 (Table 3). The highest NFB (2.50) was recorded in Gl3 on 500g substrate which was
statistically similar to Gl4T2, Gl4T1, Gl4T3 and Gl1T1. The lowest NFB (1.25) was recorded
in Gl1T2, Gl2T1, Gl2T2, Gl5T2 and Gl5T3.
Length and diameter of stalk: The length and diameter of stalk were significantly
different in different strains of Ganoderma lucidum when cultured on different amounts
of substrate and ranged from 0.75 to 2.25 cm and 0.98 to 1.88 cm respectively (Table 3).
The highest length of stalk (2.25 cm) was found in Gl4 when cultured on 500g sawdust
medium, which was statistically similar to all the treatments except Gl1T1 and Gl1T3. The
lowest length of stalk (0.75 cm) was recorded in Gl1 on 1000g substrate. In case of
diameter of stalk, the highest diameter of stalk (1.88 cm) was observed in Gl4 when
cultured on 750 and 1000g substrates and the lowest diameter of stalk (0.98 cm) was
observed in Gl1 on 750g substrate.
Diameter and thickness of pileus: The diameter and thickness of pileus of six strains of
reishi mushroom in different amounts of substrate were varied significantly (Table 3).
The highest diameter of pileus (9.00 cm) was recorded in Gl4 when cultured on 750g
substrate which was significantly higher as compared to all the treatments except the
same strain on 1000g substrate. The lowest diameter of pileus (4.55 cm) was observed inPerformance of six strains of reishi mushroom
Gl3 when cultured on 500g substrate which did not differ significantly with other
treatments except Gl4T1, Gl4T2 and Gl4T3. The highest thickness of pileus (1.78 cm) was
recorded in Gl4 when cultured on 1000g substrate which was significantly higher as
compared to all the treatments except Gl1T1 and Gl1T2. The lowest thickness of pileus
(1.45 cm) was recorded in Gl1 on 500g substrate.
Biological yield: Appreciable variation was found in the biological yield of six strains of
reishi mushroom on three different amounts of substrate (Table 3). The highest biological
yield (36.00g/ packet) was recorded in Gl4 when cultured on 750g substrate which was
significantly higher than all the treatments except the same strain on 1000g substrate. The
lowest biological yield (20.00g/ packet) was recorded in Gl3 on 500g substrate which was
followed by Gl5, Gl6, Gl1 and Gl2 on 500g substrate.
Table 3. Interaction effect of six strains of reishi mushroom and different amounts of
substrate on yield and yield contributing characters
Treatments Number of
fruiting body
(NFB)
Length of
stem (cm)
Diameter
of stem
(cm)
Diameter
of pileus
(cm)
Thickness of
pileus (cm)
Biological
yield (g)
(1st flush)
Gl1T1 1.75 abc 1.55 abc 1.33 abc 5.53 bc 1.45 d 22.25 def
Gl1T2 1.25 c 1.10 bc 0.98 c 5.50 bc 1.48 cd 26.25 bcd
Gl1T3 1.50 bc 0.75 c 1.25 bc 5.58 bc 1.55 a-d 26.75 bcd
Gl2T1 1.25 c 1.20 bc 1.33 abc 6.05 bc 1.60 a-d 22.50 c-f
Gl2T2 1.25 c 1.30 abc 1.25 bc 5.80 bc 1.68 a-d 26.00 b-e
Gl2T3 1.50 bc 1.85 ab 1.58 ab 5.75 bc 1.55 a-d 27.75 b
Gl3T1 2.50 a 1.30 abc 1.48 ab 4.55 c 1.68 a-d 20.00 f
Gl3T2 1.50 bc 1.63 abc 1.13 bc 5.28 bc 1.73 ab 23.25 b-f
Gl3T3 1.50 bc 1.25 abc 1.48 ab 5.60 bc 1.68 a-d 23.00 b-f
Gl4T1 2.00 abc 2.25 a 1.45 abc 7.00 b 1.48 cd 26.00 b-e
Gl4T2 2.25 ab 1.98 ab 1.88 a 9.00 a 1.73 ab 36.00 a
Gl4T3 1.75 abc 1.93 ab 1.88 a 8.70 a 1.78 a 34.50 a
Gl5T1 1.50 bc 1.78 ab 1.58 ab 5.95 bc 1.68 a-d 21.25 ef
Gl5T2 1.25 c 1.55 abc 1.20 bc 6.05 bc 1.70 abc 25.00 b-e
Gl5T3 1.25 c 1.83 ab 1.43 abc 5.45 bc 1.48 cd 25.50 b-e
Gl6T1 1.50 bc 1.25 abc 1.18 bc 6.13bc 1.60 a-d 22.25 def
Gl6T2 1.50 bc 1.62 abc 1.03 bc 6.25 bc 1.68 a-d 27.25 bc
Gl6T3 1.50 bc 1.45 abc 1.48 abc 5.85 bc 1.68 a-d 27.75 b
CV (%) 35.44 16.36 14.43 13.37 9.26 11.56
In a column, means followed by a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT. (T1 :
500g; T2 : 750g and T3 :1000g)
Biological efficiency: Remarkable variation was observed in biological efficiency of six
strains of reishi mushroom on different amounts of substrate (Fig. 1). The highest
biological efficiency (13.00%) was obtained from Gl4 when cultured on 500g substrate.
The lowest biological efficiency (5.75%) was recorded in Gl3 when cultured on 1000g
substrate. The study revealed that, the biological efficiency of the strains used in this
experiment is lower as compare to Erkel (2009) who reported the biological efficiency of
Ganoderma lucidum was 20.85% when cultured on 1 kg poplar sawdust supplemented
with wheat bran.14
Gl-1 Gl-2 Gl-3 Gl-4 Gl-5 Gl-6
Six strains of reishi mushroom
Biological efficiency (%
500g 750g 1000g
Fig. 1. Biological efficiency of six strains of reishi mushroom on different amounts of
substrate
REFERENCES
Arora, D. 1986. Mushrooms Demystified: A comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi. Ten Speed
Press, Berkeley, Toronto. p. 959.
Erkel E. I. 2009. The effect of different substrate mediums on yield of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.)
Karst. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. 7(3&4): 841-844.
Gomez, K. A. & Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John
Wiley and Sons. Inc. New York. pp. 304-307.
Malarvizhi, K., Murugesan, K. & Kalaichelvan, P. T. 2003. Xylamase production by Ganoderma
lucidum on liquid and solid state culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 41:
620-626.
Nasreen, Z., Kausar, T., Nadeem, M. & Bajwa, R. 2005. Study of different growth parameters in
Ganoderma lucidum. Micologia Aplicada International. 17(1): 5-8.
Peksen, A. & Yakupoglu, G. 2009. Tea waste as a supplement for the cultivation of Ganoderma
lucidum. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25: 611-618.
Smith, J. E., Rowan, N. J. & Sullivan, R. 2002. Medicinal mushroom: A rapid developing area of
biotechnology for cancer therapy and other bioactivities. Biotechnology Letters. 24: 1839-
1845.
Wagner, R., Mitchell, D. A., Sassaki, G. L., Amazonas, M. A. L. A. & Berovic, M. 2003. Current
techniques for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum for the production of biomass,
ganoderic acid and polysaccharides. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 41(4): 371-382.
Yang, F. C. & Liau, C. B. 1998. Effect of cultivating conditions on the mycelial growth of
Ganoderma lucidum in submerged flask cultures. Bioprocess Engineering. 19: 233-236.
38

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Company:Mushroom Agro Concern

Address:Savar, Dhaka, bangladesh, Bangladesh,1340

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